Liver value Trigliceride, increased risk of arteriosclerosis, tinnitus?

Liver value Trigliceride, what are the consequences?
In the medical field, blood triglyceride levels are measured when making a blood analysis. Increased levels (over 150 mg per dl or 1.7 mmol per l) indicate a lipid metabolism disorder (hypertriglyceridemia) or obesity. These values ​​are also increased in other diseases such as hypothyroidism or kidney disease. Increased levels of triglycerides present a risk as they can promote the formation of thrombosis or arteriosclerosis of the blood vessels, especially if they are associated with elevated cholesterol levels. Why are elevated triglycerides dangerous?

High levels of triglycerides in the blood indicate high risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis in turn promotes coronary heart disease, heart attacks and strokes.
Likewise, insulin resistance is often present (resistance of the body to the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin), which may lead to diabetes (diabetes mellitus) if hypertriglyceridemia exists.
Extremely high blood triglycerides can lead to pancreatitis (pancreatitis). This is a life threatening and very painful condition that may require treatment at the hospital intensive care unit.

Primary hypertriglyceridemias are usually caused by unhealthy diet and alcohol consumption. A diet that contains too many calories in the long term leads to increased triglycerides and obesity. Much less common are genetic disorders that cause elevated levels of triglycerides (e.g., familial hypertriglyceridemias).

Diseases that lead to secondary hypertriglyceridemia are e.g. ill-adjusted diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, end stage renal failure, nephrotic syndrome (also kidney disease) and HIV. Drugs that raise triglyceride levels are e.g. estrogen-containing birth control pills, beta-blockers (antihypertensive medication), corticosteroids, thiazide diuretics and antiretroviral drugs. How are elevated triglycerides treated?

First of all, it is important to find out if it is a primary or secondary hypertriglyceridemia. Secondary hypertriglyceridemias treat the underlying disease as far as possible. If this is insufficient, hypertriglyceridemia will be treated medically.

If a drug is the cause of hypertriglyceridemia, it must be considered whether this drug is actually necessary for the patient or whether there is an alternative drug without this side effect. If discontinuation of the causative drug is not possible, drug treatment of hypertriglyceridemia may also be considered.

Even with familial hypertriglyceridemias, drug therapy with a blood lipid lowering agent is important. If hypertriglyceridemia is due to a wrong diet, diet and lifestyle must first be optimized before drug treatment. The daily amount of food should be adjusted to the energy requirements, excess weight must be reduced. Along with regular exercise, normal levels of triglycerides can be achieved without the need for medication. Which medications are used to treat elevated triglycerides?

Before drugs are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia, the benefit-risk balance needs to be carefully considered. Blood lipids can have serious side effects. All conservative measures (healthy diet, quit smoking, regular exercise, weight loss) should be exhausted before drug therapy is started.

Depending on the assessment of other blood lipids (HDL and LDL cholesterol), a suitable drug can be selected. So-called statins are the first choice for concomitant hypercholesterolemias. In addition, fibrates and nicotinic acid analogs are suitable for lowering elevated triglyceride levels. In any case, the treatment should be done in close consultation with the family doctor.